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  • Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch and cellulose.
  • They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.


Types of Carbohydrates:

On the hydrolysis basis: Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides: · It cannot be hydrolysed further into a simpler unit of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone. E.g.: Glucose, Fructose, Ribose, Galactose, etc.
Oligosaccharides: · On hydrolysis, it yields two to ten monosaccharides units, e.g., disaccharides, trisaccharide, etc.

· Sucrose == Glucose + Fructose

· Maltose == Glucose + Glucose

· Lactose == Glucose + Galactose

Polysaccharides: · On hydrolysis, it yields a large number of monosaccharides unit. E.g.: Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen, Gums.

· Polysaccharides are long chains of sugars, not sweet, hence called non-sugars.

· Insulin is a polymer of fructose.


Diabetes Mellitus:

  • Generally referred as Diabetes, is a chronic condition where the Pancreas gland does not generate enough insulin required by the body to regulate glucose metabolism, which led to high blood sugar levels in body.
  • All carbohydrates foods are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin is a hormone produce by the pancreas, which helps glucose to get into cells. (insulin converts glucose into glycogen)
  • Normal blood sugar level for our body is 150- 200mg/dl.


Two classes of Diabetes Mellitus:

Type 1 DM/ Insulin dependent diabetes · It is one of type where the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin in body, it needs daily insulin injection to maintain blood glucose level.

· Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but most frequently occurs in children and adolescents.

Type 2 DM/ Insulin resistance diabetes · In this type, pancreas produces some insulin, but its not sufficient as per body requirements and cells are resistant to it.

· Type 2 diabetes treatment involved healthy lifestyle, regular physical activities and healthy diets.

· More commons in adults, and accounts for 90% of diabetes cases.

Gestational diabetes · is a type of diabetes usually occurs when a pregnant women develops high blood sugar levels without a previous history of diabetes.

· It usually disappears after pregnancy but mother and child are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later stages of life.


  • Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds which have large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
  • Collagen is the most abundant protein in the animal world.
  • Proteins can be classified into two types based on molecular shape: Fibrous proteins (fiber-like structure, insoluble in water), Globular proteins (spherical shape, soluble in water).


Proteins Functions
Collagen Intercellular ground substance
Insulin Hormone
Antibody Fight Infectious agents
Receptor Sensory reception(smell, taste etc)
GLUT-4 Enables glucose transport into cells



  • Organic compounds required in small amount in our bodies to develop and function normally.
  • Most of the vitamins cannot be synthesized in our body but plants can synthesize almost all of them.
  • Vitamins can be classified on basis of solubility:
  • Fat-Soluble vitamins: Soluble in fats and oil but insoluble in water. They are stored in liver and adipose tissues. E.g., vitamin A, D, E, K (KEDA).
  • Water-Soluble vitamins: needs regular supply in the diet, excreted in urine and cannot be stored in our body. E.g., vitamin B and C groups (except B12).
  • Deficiency of vitamins can cause several diseases.


Vitamins/Minerals Deficiency disease Sources Functions
A (Retinol) – Fat soluble Night blindness Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, tomatoes, carrots, milk, liver, watermelon etc. Necessary for wound healing, growth and normal immune functions, formation of rhodopsin for vision in dim light
B1 (Thiamine) – Water soluble (Anti stress vitamin) Beriberi Fresh fruits, corn, cashew nuts, peas, wheat, milk, dates, black beans etc. Part of an Enzyme, needed for energy metabolism and nerve functions.
B2 (Riboflavin) – Water soluble Ariboflavinosis, Photophobia, poor growth Bananas, grapes, pumpkin, yoghurt, mushroom, popcorn, liver etc. Essentials for growth, enzymatic role in tissue respiration and acts as transporter of hydrogen ions.
B3 (Niacin) – Water soluble Pellagra, dermatitis, dementia Meat, eggs, fish, milk, guava, peanuts, cereals, green peas etc. Helps in oxidation and energy releases, synthesis of glycogen and breakdown of fatty acids
B5 (Pantothenic Acid) – Water soluble Fatigue, loss of antibody production, sleep disturbances Meat, kidney, egg yolk, fish, chicken, legumes, avocado etc. Synthesis of vital body compounds, essential in intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein.
B6 (Pyridoxine) – Water soluble Microcytic Anaemia, irritability Pork, chicken, bread, wholegrain, soya beans, cereals etc. Essential for normal growth, Synthesis and breakdown of amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids
B7 (Biotin) – Water soluble Dermatitis, enteritis, insomnia Walnuts, peanuts, milk, egg yolks, salmon, mushroom, cauliflower, banana, raspberries etc. Essential components of enzymes, carrier of carbon dioxide, metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids
B9 (Folic Acid) – Water soluble Megaloblastic anaemia (poor growth) Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, beets, legumes etc. Essential in biosynthesis of nucleic acids, necessary for red blood cell maturation
B12 (Cobalamin) Pernicious anaemia, neurological deterioration Fish, meats, poultry, eggs, Breast milk etc. Essential in biosynthesis of nucleic acids, red blood cell maturation; involved in central nervous system metabolism
C (Ascorbic Acid) – Water soluble Scurvy (bleeding gums) Fresh citrus such as oranges, grapefruit, broccoli, goat milk, chestnuts etc. Essential in synthesis of collagen, iron absorption and transportation, water soluble antioxidants;
D (Calciferol) – Fat soluble Rickets (soft bones) Fish, beef, cod liver oil, egg yolk, liver, cereals etc. Necessary for normal bone formation, helps absorption of calcium and phosphorus in Intestines
E (Tocopherol) – Fat soluble Muscles damages, less fertility Potatoes, pumpkin, guava, mango, Breast milk, nuts and seeds. Antioxidants, role in neuromuscular function
K (Phytonadione) – Fat soluble Non-clotting of blood Tomatoes, broccoli, mangoes, grapes, chest nuts, lamb etc. Required in other blood clothing factors, synthesis by intestinal bacteria
Calcium Rickets- abnormal development of bones Breast milk, yogurt, cheese, fortified grains, kale, mustards, salmon. Builds and maintains bones and teeth, essential in blood clotting
Iodine Endemic goitre, depressed thyroid function Breast milk, seafood, iodized salt Helps regulate thyroid hormones, regulation of cellular oxidation and growth
Iron Hypochromic microcytic anaemia, lethargy Breast milk, meat, liver, legumes, cereals, green leafy vegetables Formation of haemoglobin and oxygen transport, increase resistant to infections.
Zinc Mild anaemia, hair loss, growth failure Breast milk, egg yolk, seafood, liver, oysters, whole-grain breads, cereals Components of many enzyme system and insulin
Phosphorus Muscles weakness, cardiac arrhythmias. Orange juice, bananas, yogurt, potatoes, soy products Builds and maintains bones and teeth, functions in energy metabolism.



  • Is an organic compound, fat-like insoluble waxy substance, found in all cells of our body and is circulated through the blood cells with the help of Lipoproteins.
  • Cholesterol is synthesized in the liver. Two types of Cholesterol:
  • Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL): Bad cholesterol.
  • High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL): Good cholesterol.
  • Cholesterol plays an important role in creating cells, hormones, vitamin D production and bile acids.


  • Fat is a major source of energy and helps our body absorb vitamins.
  • Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.
  • Fats are solid at room temperature, generally insoluble in water.
  • Essential Fatty acid: are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body.
  • Two essential fatty acids: alpha-linolenic acid (an Omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an Omega- 6 fatty acids).


Two types of Fats on basis of saturation:



· Fats in which the fatty acids all have single bonds.

· Saturated fat has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons.

· Most animal fats are saturated whereas plants and animal fats are unsaturated.

· Not healthy, less vulnerable to rancidity, solid at room temperature.

UNSATURATED FAT: · In which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid.

· Hydrogen is eliminated by double bonds.

· Unsaturated fats are lesser in energy than the equivalent amount of saturated fats.

· The greater the unsaturation means more vulnerable to rancidity.

HEALTHY FATS: · Omega-3 and Omega-6, Monosaturated and Polyunsaturated.

· Omega-3 and Omega-6 are polyunsaturated fatty acids are heart-healthy fats, important components of cell membranes.

· Some sources of fats include almonds, cashews, pecans, pumpkins, sunflower seeds, Olive oil, vegetable oils pine nuts etc.

UNHEALTHY FATS · Saturated fat and Trans-fat.

· Saturated fats are primarily found in meats and dairy products.

· Solid fats, unhealthy because they increase LDL(bad cholesterol) levels and increase heart diseases.

· Sources of saturated fats are high-fat cheeses, high-fat cuts of meat, butter, ice cream, palm, coconut oils etc.

· Trans fat is simply liquid oils turned into solid fats during food processing.

· Trans fats are worse than saturated fats, it increases LDL(bad cholesterol) and decreases HDL(good cholesterol).

· Trans fatty acids are used as a preservative in packaged food items.

· Our body normally makes 85% of cholesterol, we need only 15% of cholesterol or fat from outside.



Malnutrition occurs when the body doesn’t get enough nutrients. Causes include a poor diet, digestive conditions or another disease. The nutrients involved are calories, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins or minerals.


Malnutrition- Types:

Undernutrition: This covers stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height),underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies (lack of important minerals).
Acute Malnutrition or wasting:

· Marasmus- due to lack of nutrients, body fats and tissues starts degenerating at an alarming rate, affects the immune system of the body.

· Kwashiorkor- happens due to retention of fluid in legs, an under-nourished child looks very plump.

· Marasmic- Kwashiorkor – happens due to oedema and severe wasting.


· Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health such as heart diseases, stroke, diabetes etc.

· A body mass index (BMI) over 25 is considered overweight, and over 30 is obese.

· Body Mass Index (BMI)= Weight/Height.

· Normal BMI is in the range of 18-25.


Related Information:

  • Global Nutrition Report 2020– India is among 88 countries that are likely to miss the global nutrition’s target by 2025.
  • FAO– 14.5% of India’s population is undernourished.
  • Global Hunger Index 2019 report– India ranked 102nd out of 117 countries.
  • UNICEF report– 38% of children younger than 5 years of age in India are stunted.
  • Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh has the highest percentages of underweight childbirths in India.




· World Food Day– October 16, to address the problem of global Hunger.

· POSHAN Abhiyan– to ensure a “Malnutrition Free India” by 2022.

· Mid-day Meal scheme– to improve nutritional levels in school children.

· National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013– to ensure food and nutrition security to most vulnerable, making access to food a legal right.

· Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme– aims at providing food, preschool education, primary healthcare to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.



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 Career Development Program 2023 Result PDF     Download UPSC Mains 2023 Question Papers PDF  Free Initiative links -1) Download Prahaar 3.0 for Mains Current Affairs PDF both in English and Hindi 2) Daily Main Answer Writing  , 3) Daily Current Affairs , Editorial Analysis and quiz ,  4) PDF Downloads  UPSC 2022 Final Result🔥5 out of Top 10 from PW OnlyIAS Community. UPSC Prelims 2023 Trend Analysis cut-off and answer key