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Green – Update/clarification/improvement for better learning experience

Red – Corrected statements


Page. Updates
7 Plebiscite: Method of obtaining the opinion of people on any issue of public importance. It is generally used to solve territorial disputes.
16 Some of them are available only to the citizens (Art. 15, Art. 16, Art. 19, Art. 29, and Art. 30) while others are available to all persons whether citizens, foreigners or legal persons like corporations or companies.

All are available against the arbitrary action of the state. Some of them are also available against the action of private individuals.

18 Exception in Article 15 (C) – 93rd amendment act = Enacted Central Educational Institutions (reservation in admission) Act, 2006 à quota for 27% reservation for OBC in all central higher educational institutions including the IITs and the IIM.

The exception (D) in Art. 15 was added by the 103rd Amendment Act of 2019 à central government issued an order in 2019 à 10% reservation to EWS in admission to educational institutions.

23 Art. 22 (1) – This first part of Art. 22 confers the following rights on a person who is arrested or detained under an ordinary law: Right to be informed of the grounds of arrest + Right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner + Right to be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours (excluding the journey time) + Right to be released after 24 hours unless the magistrate authorizes further detention.
24 Art. 25 protects individualistic freedom of religion
25 Article 226: Concurrent and original jurisdiction
29 Article 38: To minimize inequalities in income, status, facilities, and opportunities (Added by 44th Amendment)
31 Champakam Dorairajan Case 1951: FRs can be amended by the Parliament by enacting a Constitutional amendment.
32 11th Fundamental Duty was added after the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002 which made education compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 14 years. (note: In DPSP, it is up to six years).
37 Golakh Nath Case 1967: Supreme Court: FRs are transcendental & immutable. Parliament cannot abridge or take away any FR. Constitutional Amendment Acts are laws under Article 13. So, any amendment violating FR would be void under Article 13
42 Territorial extent of Central and state legislation: The President can make regulations for the peace, progress, and good governance of the four UTs – Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu and Ladakh.
42 The resolution remains in force for one year. It can be renewed any number of times but not exceeding one year at a time.

The laws cease to have an effect on the expiration of six months after the resolution has ceased to be in force.

43 NOTE: “Suspension of Fundamental Rights during proclamation of emergency” provision borrowed from Weimer constitution.
54 The first time, the President’s Rule was imposed in Punjab in 1951.

Maximum times imposed in UP.

71 The House can remove the Speaker through a resolution passed by an effective majority (more than 50% of the total strength of the house present and voting) as per Articles 94 and 96 of the Indian Constitution.
90 Retired judge (Art. 224A): At any time, the chief justice of the high court can request any retired judge (qualified to be) of the supreme court to act as the supreme court for a temporary period. He can do so only with the previous consent of the President and also of the person to be so appointed.
99 The panel of Chairmen: The Speaker nominates from amongst the members a panel of chairman. Any one of them can preside over the assembly in the absence of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker. He has the same powers as the speaker when so presiding. He holds office until a new panel of the chairman is nominated.
115 Qualified to be Judge of High Court (i.e., Citizen of India and must have been in judicial Service of State for 10 years or an advocate of the high court for 10 years). Not an eminent jurist.
116 Finance commission Constituted by the president of India every fifth year or at such an earlier time as he considers necessary.
116 Special Officer for Linguistic Minority: Article 350B, Part – XVI




Page. Updates
4 INTERNAL: Weak Rulers after Aurangzeb à Akbar II (1806-37) – Gave the title of “Raja” to Raja Ram Mohan Rai.

Farrukh siyar [1713-1719] – Issues three Farmans in 1717 to English (Magna Carta of the Company).

7 Point 4: Vasco Da Gama of Portugal in 1498 discovered all-new sea routes to India.
9 The dual system of government: The Diwani (Fiscal) was carried out by the company so the Company was Diwan. The Nizamat (territorial) jurisdiction was carried out by these decrepit Indians so they were Nizam. So, this system of separate Diwan and Nizam is called Dual Administration. However, the real authority was the East India Company in the Nizamat also.
11 Subsidiary Alliance: ‘The Nizam of Hyderabad’ was the first victim of this policy. In AD 1798 it detached the Nizam from the French and also forbade having alliances with Maratha without British consent. The second state was Mysore in AD 1799. Then Wellesley compelled the Nawab of Awadh to accept the Policy of Subsidiary Alliance in AD 1801.
13 Heading of Chap. 3 – People’s Resistance Against British Before 1857

A complete update of chapter 3.

48 Manipur and Nagaland – Rani Gaidinliu at age of 13 years raised the banner against the British. Rani Gaidinliu was associated with Heraka Cult (the 1930s; Manipur). Nehru gave her the title of “Rani” (“Queen”), and she gained local popularity as Rani Gaidinliu.




Page. Updates
9 Global Economic Prospects is a bi-annual index, published by the World bank.
53 Treasury bill: At present, the active T-Bills are 91-days T-Bills, 182-day T-Bills, and 364-days T-Bills
59 Interchanging of rows: Subsidiaries of RBI and Minimum Reserve System of RBI.
63 SMA 1: Loan principal or interest is unpaid for 31 – 60 days.
70 Brown label ATMs: Owned by banks and banks outsourced the ATM operations to a third party (a nonbanking firm).
73 VAT: VAT is an indirect tax having a multi-point tax collection- imposed and collected at different points of the value addition chain. It has no cascading effect.
74 Professional tax: Profession tax is the tax levied and collected by the state governments in India. It is an indirect tax.

Human Capital Index is published by the World Bank, not WEF.




Chapter/topic/page no. Mistake in Old Booklet/addition Correction
Prehistoric period – Page no. 3 Prehistoric time period- 200000 BC and 3500-2500 Refers to when there was human life before records documented human activity—roughly dates from 2.5 million years ago to 1,200 B.C.

It is consisting of the Stone age, Bronze age, and Iron age (Iron age not part of prehistory for all civilizations who had introduced written records during the Bronze Age

Prehistoric period – Page no. 3

It’s not a mistake but these periods/ages started in the world and India at different times.


In the correction part, we were given numbers in the context of India’s History.


LOWER PALAEOLITHIC AGE [700,000 BC – 100,000 BC].




MESOLITHIC AGE [10,000 BC – 8000 BC]


NEOLITHIC AGE [8000 BC – 4000 BC]

LOWER PALAEOLITHIC AGE [500,000 BC – 50,000 BC].




MESOLITHIC AGE [9,000 BC – 4000 BC]


NEOLITHIC AGE [In India started around 6000 BC]

Chalcolithic period






The end of the Neolithic period saw the use of metals. Copper was the first metal used and culture based on the use of stone and copper is called chalcolithic culture.

Except for alluvial plains and thicky, forested areas traces of chalcolithic cultures are discovered almost all over the country.

They were primarily rural communities that lived in hilly lands and around the rivers.

Some Chalcolithic settlements are pre-Harappan, other contemporary and few are post-Harappan.


Page no 10 The Rigveda mentions the following rivers: Kubha (modern Kabul), the Suvastu
(Swat), the Krumu (Kurram), the Gomati (Gumal), the Sindhu (Indus) and its five
tributaries viz., Vitasta (Jhelum), Askini (Chenab) Parushni (Ravi) Sutudri (Sutlej) and
Vipasa (Beas), the Sushoma (Sohan), the Marudvridha (Maruwardwan), the Sarasvati,
the Drishadvati (the Rakshi or Chitang), the Yamuna, the Ganga, and the Sarayu.

The Himalaya or the Himavanta mountains are well known to the Rig Vedic sages but
not the Vindhyas or Satpuras.

The Nadi-sukta hymn of the Rig Veda mentions 21 rivers, which include the Ganga in
the east and the Kubha (Kabul) in the west.

The RigVeda mentions the Himalayas and Mujavant mountains. It also mentions the ocean
(Samudra) in connection with rivers Sindhu and Saraswati falling into the ocean. The ocean is
also mentioned in the context of foreign trade.

History of Mauryan Period

Ashoka – Page no 25


Mogaliputta Tissa presided over the 3rd Buddhist Council held in 250 BC at Pataliputra.



Mogaliputta Tissa presided over the 3rd Buddhist Council held in 240 BC at Pataliputra.



Buddhism & Jainism

page no -34

Page no 32


Teachers of Mahavir Jain mentioned Alarakama and Udraka Ramputra.




3rd Buddhist council was convened in 250 BC

Line deleted

Alarakama was not a teacher of Mahavir Jain.

some sources claim Udraka Ramputra was a teacher of his, but it’s not mentioned in any standard book.



3rd Buddhist council was convened in 240 BC.


History of Vedic period – society – Page no 11



Only the first three ashramas are mentioned in the later Vedic texts.











History of Vedic period – society – Page no 13













Later Vedic –

Pottery type: Black and redware, black slipped ware, painted grey ware, and redware.

Plowing was done with the help of wooden plowshare. Very few agricultural tools made of iron have been found.

Gold and silver coins like stamina and Krishna were used as media of exchange.

Vedic texts

Collections of the Vedic hymns were known as the Samhitas. The Rigveda Samhita is the oldest Vedic text.


Full of ritualistic formulae and explain the social and religious meaning of rituals.


Vedic scriptures explained to students in the forest, thus it came to be known as Forest texts/Aranyakas.

They explain the metaphysics and symbolism of sacrifices.




Sangam Period Addition Imp Ports-Tondi, Puhar, Musiri, Korkai, Arikkamedu and Marakkanam.

Dancing was performed by Kanigaiyar. Koothu was the most popular entertainment of the people.


Economy page no. 21

Rich peasants were called ‘grihapatis’.


Rich peasants were called ‘gahapatis’


Developments in Philosophy

  • By the beginning of the Christian era, six schools of philosophy developed.
Samkhya Founder – Kapila

Rational and scientific view.

The world owes its creation & evolution more to nature than the god.

The person can attain salvation through the acquisition of real knowledge and it can be acquired through perception, inference, and hearing.


Founder – Patanjali

The person can attain salvation through meditation and physical application.

To obtain salvation physical exercises called asana and breathing exercises pranayama recommended.

Nyaya Founder – Gautam

Salvation can be attained through the acquisition of knowledge.

The stress laid on the use of logic. Promoted systemic thinking and reasoning.

Vaisheshika Founder – Kanad

Gives importance to the discussion of material elements.

It propounded the atom theory. It marked the beginning of physics in India.

Later scientific view was diluted with belief in God and physical spiritualism.

Mimamsa Found – Jaimini

literally means the art of reasoning and interpretation.

Recommended the performance of Vedic sacrifices to attain salvation.

Vedanta Founder – Badrayana (book – Bramhasutra)

Vedanta means the end of the Vedanta.

Acquisition of knowledge and realization of Brahma to attain salvation.




























NNote: Sankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, and Swami Vivekananda promoted the Vedanta school.




1. Ajivika – A heterodox sect in the time of Buddha.

2. Charvak or Lokayat School was actually propounded by Brihaspati but was systematized by Charvak.

3. Samkhya and Vaisheshik put forward a materialist view of life.


Chapter/topic/page no. Mistake in Old Booklet Correction/Addition

Early Medieval period – Gurjara -Pratihara – Page no 2



Chandela Dynasty (Ruled bet the 9th – 13th centuries) and Khajuraho temples.


Khajuraho temples

Built during different time-period. Most Khajuraho temples were built between 885 AD and 1050 AD.

Temples are dedicated to two religions –Hinduism and Jainism.

Yasovarman (A.D. 954) built the Lakshmana temple.

The largest and grandest temple is the Kandariya Mahadeva, which is attributed to king Ganda (A.D. 1017-29).

Khajuraho temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures.

They are made of marble.

Chandela Dynasty

The Chandelas are earlier feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratihara. The 10th century Chandela-ruler Yashovarman became practically independent, although he continued to acknowledge the Pratihara suzerainty.

The records of Yashovarman’s successor Dhanga (950-999 AD) do not mention any Pratihara overlord. This indicates that Dhanga formally established the Chandela sovereignty.


Vijayanagara empire/ foreign travellers/ page -21 Nicolo de Conti visited during Devaraya-II rule Nicolo de Conti visited during the Devaraya-I rule



Page. Updates
24 Headings of Species Richness and Species Evenness in the topic of MEASUREMENT OF BIODIVERSITY are interchanged.
42 Utilization of Fly Ash: GoI has made it mandatory for use of fly ash bricks in construction activities happening 300 kms around thermal power plants.



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